Wednesday, July 25, 2012

How to Assess the Safetiness of Motorcycle Helmet

Uniform Provisions Concerning the Approval of Protective Helmets and their Visors for Drivers and Passengers of Motorcycles and Mopeds
  1. The PNS/UN ECE 22:2007 was developed by BPS/TC44/SC22 – TC on Road Vehicles Subcommittee on Motorcycles.
  2. It applies to protective helmets for drivers and passengers of mopeds and of motorcycles with or without side-car and to visors fitted to such helmets or intended to be added to them
  3. Definitions
    1. Protective helmet – a helmet intended to primarily protect the wearer’s head against impact; it is in the form of a hard outer shell that is designed to protect the cranial areas of users in the event of a collision, crash or fall
    2. Visor – transparent protective screen extending over the eyes and covering all or part of the face
    3. Retention system – complete assembly that maintains helmet position on the head and prevents it from flying off the wearer’s head during quick head movements or accident, including any devices for adjustment of the system or to enhance the wearer’s comfort. This includes china strap, double-D ring or sliding bar fastening device, quick-release mechanism, buckle.
    4. Protective padding – material used to absorb impact energy
    5. Comfort padding – a material provided for comfort of the wearer

      Fig. 1 Diagram of a Protective Helmet
      Note: Protective helmets for drivers and passengers of motorcycles were designed to reduce the chances of serious head, brain, and facial injuries and death from motorcycle crashes but are not designed to prevent injuries to other parts of the body.
  4. General Specification
    1. Helmet
      • Helmet shall be in the form of a hard outer shell, containing additional means of absorbing impact energy, and retention system.
      • May be fitted with ear flaps and a neck curtain. It may also have a detachable peak, a visor and a lower face cover
      • If fitted with a non-protective lower face cover, it should be marked that it does not protect chin from impacts.

        Fig. 2 Symbol “Does not protect chin from impact”
      • Helmet shall not dangerously affect wearer’s ability to hear. The temperature in the space between the head and the shell shall not rise inordinately; ventilation holes may be provided in the shell.
      • There shall be no inward-facing sharp edges on the inside of the helmet; rigid projecting internal parts shall be covered with padding
      • various components of the helmet shall be so assembled that they are not liable to become easily detached as a result of an impact
  5. Retention system
    1. Retention systems shall be protected from abrasion.
    2. All parts of the retention system shall be permanently attached to the system or to the helmet
  6. Material
    1. Material used shall not undergo appreciable alteration under the influence of ageing or exposure to sun, extreme temperature and rain.
    2. Materials that come in contact to skin shall not undergo appreciable alteration through the effect of perspiration; shall not use materials known to cause skin troubles.
  7. Performance
    1. Helmet shall not exhibit breakage or deformation dangerous to the wearer
  8. Visors
    1. Visors shall be removable; must be possible to move the visor our of the field of vision with one hand.
    2. A mark on visors shall specify if it’s for “Daytime use only”.

      Fig. 3 Symbol for “Day use only”
    3. Visors shall be free from any significant defects such as bubbles, scratches, dull spots, holes, mould marks that can likely impair the vision.
    4. Visors shall not cause any noticeable distortion of object as seen through the visor, shall be resistant to abrasion and impact, and shall not give rise to any confusion between colour used in road traffic sign and signals
  9. Tests
    1. Impact-absorption – measures helmet’s capacity to absorb impact when dropped in a guided free fall onto a fixed steel anvil
    2. Test for projections and surface friction – done to assess the way in which an outer shell will sheer away, become detached, or slide off when impacted
    3. Rigidity test – determines the strength of the helmet; measures the deformation of a helmet when weight is applied to each side of the helmet
    4. Dynamic test of the retention system – test to ensure that the helmet remains securely fastened to the rider’s head
    5. Visor test (field of vision, luminous transmittance, light diffusion, recognition of traffic signal lights, mechanical characteristics – drop-hammer test, wherein no sharp splinters are produced if visor is shattered; and optical quality and scratch resistance)
    6. Micro-slip test of the chin strap – slippage of the grip shall not exceed 10 mm
    7. Test for resistance to abrasion of chin strap– shall withstand a tension of 3 kN without breaking
    8. Tests for retention systems relying on quick-release mechanisms
  10. Markings
    1. Helmet – trade name/mark, size, if appropriate, an indication if the lower face to protect chin against impact
    2. Visor – trade name/mark, if appropriate, an indication if the visor is for day time use only
    3. Information for Wearers – shall be clearly visible
      • “For adequate protection, this helmet must fit closely and be securely attached. Any helmet that has sustained a violent impact should be replaced”
      • “Does not protect chin from impacts” together with symbol – for non-protective lower face cover
      • “Warning – Do not apply paint, stickers, petrol or other solvents to this helmet”
      • Every helmet shall be clearly marked with its size and its maximum weight
      • Shall bear the type of visor
      • Every visor attached to a helmet shall include information on general instruction for storage and care; instructions for cleaning; suitability of the visor for use in conditions of poor visibility, daytime and night time
    4. Conspicuity marking – Helmet may be required to contribute to the conspicuity of the rider both during daytime and night through use of reflective materials in the front, rear, right and left.

DTI - Approved Helmets (Visayas)

Here are the list of helmet brands approved by DTI - Visayas:

Note: Always look for the new ICC stickers because some of the old issued ICC stickers on some brands did not pass the DTI assessments, so check it carefully and be wary of fake ICC stickers proliferating nowadays.

The DTI has listed 49 brands of approved motorcycle helmet. The most popular brand is “Index“. Here’s the partial list of the brands of helmet issued with the ICC mark:

  1. 2
  2. AGV
  3. AINON
  4. AM
  5. ARAI
  6. AVEX
  7. AXA
  8. BEN-2
  9. BIO
  10. CABERG
  12. EXSOL
  13. GDR
  14. GPX
  15. H
  16. HF
  17. HJC
  18. HNJ
  20. HPH
  21. INDEX
  22. KH
  23. KOR
  24. LEV3
  25. LS2
  26. MRC
  27. NEXX
  28. NOLAN
  30. POSH
  32. SA-070
  33. SHOEI
  34. SOL
  36. SPYDER
  37. ST
  38. STUDSS
  39. SUN
  40. TANKED
  42. VCAN
  43. VOLTZ
  45. XPO
  46. YAMAHA
  47. YEMA
  48. ZEBR
  49. ZEUS

Monday, May 7, 2012

Mechanical ABS for Motorcycles

What is an ABS?
The word ABS stands for Anti Lock Braking System. ABS comes with two different types. One is mechanical and another is ECU based.  The mechanical system works on pressure but continuously varies it according to the pressure applied by the rider on the brake lever. An ECU controlled ABS works in a smarter way because it is based on sensors and a processor which work together to vary braking force based on numerous information for the bikes systems such as throttle position, vehicle speed, angle of lean etc.but for now will focus on the mechanical ABS the yellow attachment shown below:

  Watch the video between Non-ABS and ABS equipped motorcyle in this video you can understand the bottom line difference between two motorcycles with and without ABS each.  The motorcycle on the left with skid arms is the non-ABS motorcycle, see how the brake locks and skids. the motorcycle in the right is the one with mechanical ABS installed.

Courtesy of Honda. Ride Safe!